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Authors
Nicole Koenig

Nicole Koenig

Nicole Koenig is research fellow at the Jacques Delors Institut - Berlin on political and ...
Jörg Haas

Jörg Haas

Jörg Haas is a research fellow at the Jacques Delors Institut – Berlin with a focus on the future ...
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Publications

The EU as a 3-D Power: Should Europe Spend More on Diplomacy, Development and Defence?

on September 18, 2017, 11:02
Policy paper - Nicole Koenig and Jörg Haas

© (c) Fabian Blank

One of the questions stirring the debate ahead of Germany’s general election is how much the country should spend on foreign and security policy. One proposal is a comprehensive European spending target of 3% of GDP for diplomacy, development and defence. This target would fit well with the EU’s self-proclaimed role as a ‘comprehensive power’ in international security affairs.

Based on recent member state expenditure data, this policy paper by Nicole Koenig, senior research fellow at the Jacques Delors Institut - Berlin, and Jörg Haas, affiliate fellow at the Jacques Delors Institut - Berlin, shows that the EU member states are far below the 3% and that spending profiles are diverse. To strengthen the EU’s contribution to comprehensive security, they have two general options: spending more nationally or spending better through cooperation and economies of scale. We demonstrate that both avenues have limitations and recommend pursuing them in parallel.

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